Contents of issue 2, vol. 29 (2004)

  1. XIII International Conference Noise Control '04, Preface, Archives of Acoustics, 29, 2, 145
  2. M. Birnbach, A. Śliwiński, S. Zachara, Acoustic impedance variations of Helmholtz resonators of two plates with orifices inlet neck against the distance between the plates, Archives of Acoustics, 29, 2, 147-154
  3. A. Draghici, Noise control for pressing machines. Man-machine characterization, Archives of Acoustics, 29, 2, 155-167
  4. E. Kozaczka, G. Grelowska, Shipping noise, Archives of Acoustics, 29, 2, 169-176
  5. G. Makarewicz, Genetic algorithm-based active noise control systems - simulations using Internet, Archives of Acoustics, 29, 2, 177-189
  6. M. Pawlaczyk-Łuszczyńska, A. Dudarewicz, M. Waszkowska, W. Szymczak, M. Śliwińska-Kowalska, Influence of low frequency noise on cognitive performance tasks, Archives of Acoustics, 29, 2, 191-203
  7. M. Pawlaczyk-Łuszczyńska, A. Dudarewicz, M. Waszkowska, W. Szymczak, M. Kameduła, M. Śliwińska-Kowalska, Does low frequency noise affect human mental performance?, Archives of Acoustics, 29, 2, 205-218
  8. D. Pleban, Experimental modelling and research on vibroacoustic phenomena in machines, Archives of Acoustics, 29, 2, 219-233
  9. W.P. Rdzanek, Jr., W.M. Zawieska, The total sound power radiated by a clamped-guided annular plate excited for vibrations by an external surface pressure, Archives of Acoustics, 29, 2, 235-242
  10. M.L. Szary, The phenomena of electrorheological fluid behavior between two barriers under alternative voltage, Archives of Acoustics, 29, 2, 243-258
  11. M.O. Tokhi, Intelligent methods for active noise and vibration control, Archives of Acoustics, 29, 2, 259-273
  12. E. Toppila, J. Starck, The attenuation of hearing protectors against high-level shooting impulses, Archives of Acoustics, 29, 2, 275-282
  13. G. Wszołek, Z. Engel, Investigations of uncertainty of acoustical measuring instruments applied to noise control, Archives of Acoustics, 29, 2, 283-295
  14. T. Wszołek, Assessment of utility of the corona audible signal in the diagnostic process of the technical condition of UHV transmission lines, Archives of Acoustics, 29, 2, 297-308
  15. E. Zamysłowska-Szmytke, W. Szymczak, M. Śliwińska-Kowalska, Two methods of vibration perception assessing in workers exposed to hand-arm vibration, Archives of Acoustics, 29, 2, 309-315
  16. W.M. Zawieska, Active noise control methods in Poland, Archives of Acoustics, 29, 2, 317-345
  17. J. Żera, R. Młyński, Attenuation of outside noise by shotblasting helmets, Archives of Acoustics, 29, 2, 347-358
  18. Chronicle, Archives of Acoustics, 29, 2, 359-388
  19. XIII International Conference Noise Control '04, Abstracts, Archives of Acoustics, 29, 2, 359-384
  20. In memoriam, Professor Czesław Puzyna, Archives of Acoustics, 29, 2, 385-388
  21. Central Institute for Labour Protection, Information, Archives of Acoustics, 29, 2
XIII International Conference Noise Control '04, Preface
Noise Control is the most important international acoustics conference regularly organized in Poland. The XIII International Conference Noise Control '04 takes place between June 6 and 9 in Gdynia. It is organized by the Central Institute for Labour Protection - National Research Institute, the Acoustics Committee of the Polish Academy of Sciences, the Polish Acoustical Society with cooperation the Department of Mechanics and Vibroacoustics of the AGH University of Science and Technology, and the Department of Acoustics of the Building Research Institute.
Patrons of the Conference:
  • Ministry of Economy, Labour and Social Policy;
  • Ministry of the Environment;
  • Chief Labour Inspector;
  • Chief Inspector of Environmental Protection.
  • This year's Conference is special in that it takes place at the very beginning of Poland's membership in the European Union - only a month after its accession. The programme of the Conference reflects the coincidence of those dates and its organizational framework: the Conference is part of the Centre for Testing and Measurement for Improvement of Safety of Products and Working Life (TEST-PRO-SAFETY-LIFE) project - carried out within the 5-th EU Framework Programme - and of projects disseminating the results of the National Programme "Adaptation of Working Conditions in Poland to European Union Standards".
    The plenary and special interest sessions will focus on the requirements of EU directives and on their implementation into Poland's law and practice; the directions of European standardization work; the results of activities in fundamental sciences, education, occupational safety and health management; and specific technical solutions focused on noise control. Papers will be presented by outstanding foreign and Polish researchers. This issue of Archives of Acoustics, which all participants of the XIII International Conference Noise Control '04 will receive, contains abstracts of all presentations, with selected papers printed in full.
    I hope that these materials will be of interest to the readers and that they will make the problems of noise control more accessible. Anybody interested in the full texts of all presentations should consult the conference proceedings available on a CD-ROM.
    The Conference is accompanied by an exhibition in which both domestic and foreign companies have an opportunity to present their latest achievements in developing measurement equipment and technical solutions for noise control.
    The Organization Committee expresses it heartfelt thanks to members of the Scientific Committee of the Conference and the referees for their effort and great involvement. Sincere thanks also go to Conference participants for accepting our invitation to take part in it.
    Wiktor M. Zawieska


    M. Birnbach*, A. Śliwiński**, S. Zachara**, Acoustic impedance variations of Helmholtz resonators of two plates with orifices inlet neck against the distance between the plates
    * Lyceum No 2 (secondary school)
    Al. Niepodległości 751, 81-838 Sopot, Poland
    ** University of Gdańsk, Institute of Experimental Physics
    Wita Stwosza 57, 80-952 Gdańsk, Poland
    e-mail: fizas@univ.gda.pl
    (received 18 March 2004; accepted 26 March 2004)
    Experimental examinations of acoustic impedance of complex Helmholtz resonators of two plates with orifices inlet neck using Kundt tube procedure were performed. Few variants of model resonators were studied depending on the number of orifices (and their diameters) in the plates and against variations of the distance between the plates for a constant volume of the resonator cavity.
    A regular dependence of the acoustical impedance as well as the absorption coefficient against the distance between the inlet cover plates was observed for a given configuration of the orifices. Changes of the configuration (number of orifices their size and plane distribution in both plates and the relation between the lower and the upper one design) caused evident variations in acoustical properties, however no regular dependence could be found. Some configurations are more optimal than the others.


    A. Draghici, Noise control for pressing machines. Man-machine characterization
    Politehnica Univerisity of Timisoara, Romania
    e-mail: ancadraghici2003@yahoo.fr
    (received 15 March 2004; accepted 26 March 2004)
    The paper presents the pressing machines acoustic field?s research that was developed as a necessity for improving the work conditions by minimising the risk of accident and professional disease. Finally, we have established a coherent methodology for pressing machines? noise control. The efficiency and the efficacy of the proposed methodology is given by the simultaneous achievement of two aims:
    1. Characterising the pressing machine?s acoustic field, the sound waves flow phenomena and the acoustic field effects through the human operator by using physical and psycho?physiological parameters;
    2. Identifying the pressing machine assembly that is the noise source and develop a re-design plan, by improving the man-machine interface, in this case.


    E. Kozaczka*,**, G. Grelowska*, Shipping noise
    * Naval University in Gdynia
    Śmidowicza 69, 81-103 Gdynia, Poland
    ** Gdańsk University of Technology
    Narutowicza 11/12, 80-952 Gdańsk, Poland
    e-mail: ekoz@amw.gdynia.pl, ggrel@amw.gdynia.pl
    (received 14 May 2004; accepted 17 May 2004)
    The aim of this paper is to present the result of the experimental research associated with the transmission of acoustic energy generated by a moving ship and its impact on the marine animals. The methodology of evaluation of the transmission of vibration energy from the ship's mechanisms into the sea environment is given and some examples of underwater characteristics of ship's noise are shown. All of these characteristics should reflect individual features of the source that is a moving ship or a warship. Knowledge of them gives information what steps should be undertaken to obtain specified characteristics of the source. Besides, the characteristics allow to assess, which factors are the most disadvantageous to the surrounding and whether their reduction is possible without changes of operational variables of the ship.


    G. Makarewicz, Genetic algorithm-based active noise control systems - simulations using Internet
    Central Institute for Labour Protection - National Research Institute
    Czerniakowska 16, 00-701 Warszawa, Poland
    e-mail: grmak@ciop.pl
    (received 17 March 2004; accepted 26 March 2004)
    The application of genetic algorithm in Active Noise Control (ANC) systems is described here. Advantages and disadvantages of genetic algorithm-based ANC systems are discussed. Two types of genetic algorithm: binary and continuous parameter, in the context of ANC systems, are analyzed. The software for simulation of ANC systems based on gradient and genetic algorithms is described. The software consists of modules which represent functional elements of ANC systems. These modules can be easily implemented into programs for simulation of specific structures of ANC systems. The software was written in JAVA and simulations can be performed using Internet. Some results of the simulations are described. The software is currently available on www.anc.pl.


    M. Pawlaczyk-Łuszczyńska*, A. Dudarewicz*, M. Waszkowska**, W. Szymczak***, M. Śliwińska-Kowalska*, Influence of low frequency noise on cognitive performance tasks
    Nofer Institute of Occupational Medicine
    * Department of Physical Hazards
    ** Department of Work Physiology
    *** Department of Environmental Epidemiology
    Św. Teresy 8, 90-950 Łódź, Poland
    e-mail: mpawlusz@imp.lodz.pl
    (received 19 March 2004; accepted 26 March 2004)
    To study the influence of low frequency noise (LFN) on cognitive performance tasks, 96 subjects, categorised in terms of sensitivity to LFN, worked with four standardised psychological tests during exposure to LFN or broadband noise without dominant low frequency content (reference noise) at a level of 50 dB(A).
    It was found that the test results were influenced by exposure and/or noise sensitivity. Regardless of sensitivity to noise, poorer results in the LFN (compared to reference noise conditions) were noted in the Comparing of Names Test (a tendency to more erroneous responses). High-sensitive subjects achieved poorer results than others during exposure to LFN in the Stroop Colour-Word Test (a significant interaction between noise and noise sensitivity in case of reading interference) and in the Continuous Attention Test (a tendency to more erroneous reactions). These findings suggest that LFN at moderate levels could adversely influence cognitive performance tasks and subjects high-sensitive to LFN may be at highest risk.


    M. Pawlaczyk-Łuszczyńska*, A. Dudarewicz*, M. Waszkowska**, W. Szymczak***, M. Kameduła*, M. Śliwińska-Kowalska*, Does low frequency noise affect human mental performance?
    Nofer Institute of Occupational Medicine
    * Department of Physical Hazards
    ** Department of Work Physiology
    *** Department of Environmental Epidemiology
    Św. Teresy 8, 90-950 Łódź, Poland
    e-mail: mpawlusz@imp.lodz.pl
    (received 19 March 2004; accepted 26 March 2004)
    To study the influence of low frequency noise (LFN) on mental performance and subjective well-being, 192 male subjects, categorised in terms of sensitivity to noise in general, and to LFN in particular, worked with four standardised psychological tests. Three different acoustic conditions were used in the experiment: the background laboratory noise, LFN, and the broadband noise without dominant low frequency content (reference noise) at a level of 50 dB(A).
    The influence of exposure and/or noise sensitivity on the tests' results or their interaction were found in three of the four performed tests. Poorer results in the LFN (compared to other noise conditions) were observed in person classified as high-sensitive to noise in general and low-sensitive to LFN in the Signal Detection Test (more erroneous responses). The annoyance of LFN and reference noise was rated higher than that of the background noise. Subjects high-sensitive to noise in general reported the highest annoyance due to LFN. In conclusion, LFN at moderate level could be perceived as annoying and adversely affecting attention and visual perception, particularly in subjects high-sensitive to noise.


    D. Pleban, Experimental modelling and research on vibroacoustic phenomena in machines
    Central Institute for Labour Protection - National Research Institute
    Czerniakowska 16, 00-701 Warszawa, Poland
    e-mail: daple@ciop.pl
    (received 19 March 2004; accepted 10 April 2004)
    Issues related to the development of acoustic models and determinations of energetic balances of phenomena, which occur in machines, are important factors both in the design of low-noise machines and in the prediction of machine noise. The acoustic modelling of machines may be carried out using a system of omni-directional substitute sound sources, deployed in points related to the functional elements of machines. The parameters of these sources may be determined using inversion methods.
    New indices - the energy transmission index and the energy radiation index, have been proposed for application in the quantitative analysis of energetic phenomena occurring in machines. Determining these indices calls for the measurement of specific vibro-acoustic parameters of machines, acoustic pressure levels and the vibration acceleration levels or vibration velocities of the surfaces of selected machine elements.
    The paper presents the results of experimental research in the acoustic modelling of machines with the use of inversion methods, as well as the analysis of energetic phenomena, which take place in machines.


    W.P. Rdzanek*, Jr., W.M. Zawieska**, The total sound power radiated by a clamped-guided annular plate excited for vibrations by an external surface pressure
    * University of Rzeszów, Department of Acoustics
    Al. Rejtana 16A, 35-310 Rzeszów, Poland
    e-mail: wprdzank@univ.rzeszow.pl
    ** Central Institute for Labour Protection, Department of Noise and Electromagnetic Hazards
    Czerniakowska 16, 00-701 Warsaw, Poland
    e-mail: mazaw@ciop.pl
    (received 15 March 2004; accepted 26 March 2004)
    A problem of sound radiation by a clamped-guided annular plate with a hole in its center has been considered which is considerably more complex than it is in the case of a circular plate. The plate is subjected for vibrations by an external pressure. The vibrating system is controlled by a shaker clamped into the internal edge of the plate which make it possible to control vibrations of the plate as well as the total sound power radiated. The plate's volume displacement has been presented which make it possible to roughly rate the compensation quality. An amplitude-phase compensation system make it possible to observe both resonance and antiresonance phenomenas.


    M.L. Szary, The phenomena of electrorheological fluid behavior between two barriers under alternative voltage
    Southern Illinois University Carbondale, College of Engineering
    Department of Technology, Carbondale, Illinois 62901, USA
    e-mail: szary@engr.siu.edu
    (received 18 March 2004; accepted 2 April 2004)
    Electrorheological (ER) fluids placed between two barriers have the ability to change some of their physical properties like the apparent viscosity and modulus of elasticity when an external electrical field is applied. Early investigations of the sound transmission loss (STL) under DC voltage showed that a normal stress that develops in ER fluid in response to an electrical field has a significant influence on the magnitude of STL. The tangentional (shear) stress had only a negligible effect on the STL. The aim of this study was to investigate the STL using a two-barrier system with ER fluid placed between them, and subjected to alternative voltage. The STL was investigated for various kinds of ER fluids in the presence of the variable alternative electric field density. The results showed that the STL had decreased with the increasing electric field density.


    M.O. Tokhi, Intelligent methods for active noise and vibration control
    The University of Sheffield, Department of Automatic Control and Systems Engineering
    Sheffield, United Kingdom
    e-mail: o.tokhi@sheffield.ac.uk
    (received 10 May 2004; accepted 13 May 2004)
    This paper presents an overview of intelligent soft computing techniques within the framework of active control of noise and vibration. Tools considered include genetic algorithms (GAs), neural networks (NNs) and fuzzy logic (FL). The paper highlights associated merits and potential benefits of the approaches in modelling and control of dynamic systems. These are demonstrated in the control of noise in free-field propagation and vibration suppression in 1D and 2D flexible structures. The paper shows that the potential benefits of the individual components can be exploited and approaches for design and development of hybrid soft-computing algorithms devised for modelling and control of dynamic systems. It is demonstrated that significant benefits in terms of performance can be gained with such hybrid algorithms.
    Keywords: active noise control, active vibration control, fuzzy logic, genetic algorithms, neural networks, modelling of dynamic systems.


    E. Toppila, J. Starck, The attenuation of hearing protectors against high-level shooting impulses
    Institute of Occupational Health, Department of Physics
    Helsinki, Finland
    (received 15 March 2004; accepted 26 March 2004)
    The acoustical attenuation of five different hearing protectors were investigated using real impulses and miniature microphone technique in field conditions from a 23 mm antiaircraft cannon, from 122 mm howitzer and from an explosion of 1 kg of TNT. The measurements were carried out using voluntary military officers exposed to similar impulses in their work. The combination of earmuffs and earplugs proved to give the best attenuation. The attenuation of the earmuffs was related to the size of the cup. Light protectors gave practically no protection against the highest impulses from howitzer and TNT-blasts.


    G. Wszołek, Z. Engel, Investigations of uncertainty of acoustical measuring instruments applied to noise control
    AGH University of Science and Technology, Department of Mechanics and Vibroacoustics
    Mickiewicza 30, 30-059 Kraków, Poland
    e-mail: wszolek@uci.agh.edu.pl, engel@uci.agh.edu.pl
    (received 18 March 2004; accepted 26 March 2004)
    In view of regulations harmonised with the European Union legislation, being presently introduced in Poland, it is required that the presentation of the measured sound level values is accompanied by the uncertainty study. It is especially important in cases concerning an acoustical environment of human life and work.
    The uncertainty study comprises, among others, accuracy of the measuring instrument itself and its calibration prior to the measurements as well as uncertainty of the measuring method and the way of the test performance. The first element of this estimate is uncertainty of testing measuring microphones and sound level meters in order to verify whether they conform to the requirements being set for the newly manufactured instruments at the stage when they are subjects to the type approving procedure.


    T. Wszołek, Assessment of utility of the corona audible signal in the diagnostic process of the technical condition of UHV transmission lines
    Department of Mechanics and Vibroacoustics
    Al. Mickiewicza 30, 30-059 Kraków, Poland
    e-mail: twszolek@agh.edu.pl
    (received 18 March 2004; accepted 26 March 2004)
    The paper deals with application of neural network techniques to recognition of typical damages of the transmission circuit elements in UHV power lines. The damage indicator is the acoustic signal generated by the corona effect, the intensity of which increases as a result of damage or contamination of the conductor surface. The primary difficulty in the diagnostic process is the necessity to distinguish between the signals generated by the surface damages and contaminations. The problem can not be solved neither by the analysis of RF interference signal nor by the classical methods of the acoustic signal analysis.
    Particular attention has been focused on the parametrization of the acoustic signal of corona effect and selection of distinctive features, which could be useful in distinguishment of the origins of the increased corona effect in dry conductor surface conditions. For that task the aggregation analysis has been applied, in particular the possibilities offered by "Statistica"® software package. The data used in the analysis has been obtained from laboratory studies in Institute of Power Engineering in Warsaw, where typical surface damages and contaminations of the transmission line elements have been simulated.
    Keywords: corona noise, diagnosis, acoustics, cluster analysis, neural network.


    E. Zamysłowska-Szmytke, W. Szymczak, M. Śliwińska-Kowalska, Two methods of vibration perception assessing in workers exposed to hand-arm vibration
    Nofer Institute of Occupational Medicine, Department of Physical Hazards
    St. Teresa 8, Łódź, Poland
    e-mail: zamysewa@imp.lodz.pl
    (received 19 April 2004; accepted 23 April 2004)
    It is known that vibration perception could be influenced by the device parameters and technique of measurement. The influence of confounding factors like age, weight and height on VPTs values was assessed in previous analyses in non-exposed subjects. The aim of present study was to compare the results of two techniques of vibrotactile thresholds measurement in workers exposed to hand-arm vibration.
    Two methods of vibration perception assessment were compared in 124 workers (21-62 years old, 1-40 years of employment) exposed mainly to hand-arm vibration during the work as: chain saw operator, pneumatic hammers operators, metal grinders, fitters, dentist technician.
    One method (named "standard method") has been used in Poland so far; the second one (named "according to ISO method") was established on the base of ISO Standard 13091-1-2001. The methods differed not only in technical parameters of stimuli but also in the way of normative values evaluation. In standard method there were no individual features or habits included.
    The results of investigation revealed that age and weight play the important role in interpretation of tests results, both in standard and according to ISO method. Moreover, standard method measurements seem to overestimate the number of subjects with recognized vibration sense abnormalities. In both methods exposure to vibration mostly could be revealed by stimuli at frequencies of 125 and 250 Hz.


    W.M. Zawieska, Active noise control methods in Poland
    Central Institute for Labour Protection - National Research Institute
    Department of Noise and Electromagnetic Hazards
    Czerniakowska 16, 00-701 Warszawa, Poland
    e-mail: mazaw@ciop.pl
    (received 18 March 2004; accepted 26 March 2004)
    The article presents the development and selected uses of methods of active noise reduction in Poland: from the first theoretical studies of Prof. Wojciech Rubinowicz to the latest study with the use of neural networks. The article discusses the principles of active compensation of sound. It also presents the results of Polish research centres' work on the use of active systems for reducing noise in ducts, power transformers: noise and to improve hearing protectors parameters.


    J. Żera, R. Młyński, Attenuation of outside noise by shotblasting helmets
    Central Institute for Labour Protection - National Research Institute
    Czerniakowska 16, 00-701 Warszawa, Poland
    e-mail: jazer@ciop.pl
    (received 20 March 2004; accepted 26 March 2004)
    Abrasive blasting is a technological process in which forcibly propelling a stream of abrasive material is used to clean or prepare a surface. Among various physical and chemical hazards related to this process a shotblasting operator is exposed to high levels of noise. Regardless of the fact that there are no requirements to measure and report the attenuation of high level of blasting noise, manufacturers often face a question to which extent shotblasting helmets protect the operator from noise. Currently the well developed method for measuring the noise attenuation of shotblasting helmets is neither given in EN 271 standard dealing with the construction of helmets nor in EN 458 series of standards dealing with requirements for hearing protective devices. The purpose of this paper is to present the method of measurements of the noise attenuation provided by the shotblasting helmet.
    Keywords: noise attenuation, measurements on subjects, measurements on dummy head and torso, shotblasting helmets.


    XIII International Conference Noise Control '04 - Abstracts



    In Memoriam - Professor Czesław Puzyna
    Professor Czesław Puzyna

    Professor Czesław Puzyna, was born on 8 December 1920 in Warsaw.

    The war found him in Zakopane, where, as a member of the Polish Home Army (nom de guerre: Żbik), he took part in guiding Polish officers to Hungary across the Tatra Mountains. Following his arrest by the Gestapo in spring 1940, he spent one year in the Auschwitz concentration camp. After leaving the camp, to avoid capture, he went into hiding. He was also active in the Polish Home Army intelligence unit in Grójec.
    After the war, in 1948, he graduated from the Faculty of Mechanics, Gdańsk University of Technology, with a master's degree in mechanical engineering. Still being a student, from 1945 he worked with Prof. M.T. Huber in the Department of Strength of Materials, Gdańsk University of Technology, initially as a laboratory assistant, later as an assistant researcher. Working in a team led by such an outstanding scientist as Prof. Huber significantly affected Professor Czesław Puzyna's further work in research institutes.
    Between 1948 and 1951 he worked for the Institute of Mechanization and Electrification of Agriculture, initially as an assistant researcher, and later as the head of the Division of Agricultural Machines.
    In 1951, he started working for the Central Institute for Labour Protection (CIOP), Department of Agriculture, exploring the field of occupational safety in agriculture, with special focus on the reduction of mechanical vibration in agricultural machines.
    Between 1951 and 1953, parallel to his work at CIOP, he had lectures on labour protection at the Warsaw University of Technology, the Department of Tractors and Special Vehicles and the Department of Mechanization of Agriculture.
    In 1956 he organized the Department of Vibration Research at CIOP, later transformed into the Department of Technical Acoustics, and in 1990 - into the Department of Acoustic and Electromagnetic Hazards.
    This department, headed by Professor Czesław Puzyna from 1956 or 1983, was from the very beginning involved in pioneer research on developing measurement methods and evaluation criteria for noise and vibration in the work environment; identifying noise and vibration hazards in industry; developing technical and organizational solutions to reduce noise and vibration in machines and other devices; and to reduce noise propagation.
    The Department has closely cooperated with leading acousticians exploring the problems of reducing noise and vibration such as Professors: I. Malecki, S. Czarnecki, S. Ziemba, J. Sadowski, Z. Engel, A. Lipowczan.
    Professor Cz. Puzyna authored or co-authored important research projects on:
  • methods of noise measurements at workstations and at sound sources (the results of this research were incorporated into Polish standards, and were the basis for the development and construction of anechoic and reverberation rooms, which were the first such rooms in Poland at the time),
  • methods and facilities for vibration measurement and recording, and a prototype of a pallesthesiometer,
  • methods of measuring, evaluating and reducing ultrasonic and infrasonic noise,
  • testing methods for hearing protectors, and new designs of hearing protectors,
  • new construction solutions for reduced-vibration hand pneumatic hammers,
  • new solutions of sound insulation cabins, screens and spatial absorbents,
  • noise silencers for pneumatic tools, agricultural tractors, power generator units, ventilation installations.
  • The results of Prof. Cz. Puzyna's recent work on testing methods for auditory localization of sound sources (used in developing Polish standard PN-86/N-08014. Auditory danger signals. Acoustic requirements) merit special attention as do methods of testing the effect of the acoustic environment on human orientation in space (the work included, e.g., design and construction assumptions defining requirements for auxiliary rehabilitation equipment for facilitating movement of the blind). Professor Cz. Puzyna addressed those problems in his doctoral thesis.
    The results of research and many expert studies of Professor Cz. Puzyna and other employees from the Department led to comprehensive studies on noise and vibration hazards in the work environment and applicable precautions. These studies were used by the Committee for Science and Technology as the basis for preparing Resolution of the Council of Ministers No. 169 dated 12 August 1971 on intensification of efforts on noise and vibration control in the work environment in plants.
    On the basis of that resolution, by virtue of the regulation of the President of the Committee for Science and Technology, a framework program was prepared for R&D and implementation in the field of noise and vibration control in plants in 1971-1975. The program covered over 400 projects implemented by 116 research institutions, design offices and plants under the supervision of 16 ministerial departments. The program was coordinated by a Coordination Team at CIOP, chaired by Professor Czesław Puzyna.
    Professor Cz. Puzyna and the team's coordination activities were mostly focused on initiatives to stimulate research institutions to undertake projects analyzing the progress of that work, with special attention paid to the implementation of the results, and information activities concerning domestic and international studies. Coordination seminars were organized by the Institute to achieve those goals.
    The program contributed to the development of laboratory facilities in many research institutions (including universities) and many prototypes and information materials for such solutions: "Era" sound-absorbing ceiling and wall structures, board-type suspended ceilings, sound insulation cabins and enclosures, acoustic screens, silencers for ventilating installations, ceramic silencers for pneumatic and utility drop installations as well as noise and vibration measuring instruments. This program was the first complex attempt at solving the problem of noise and vibrations in Poland. The experience allowed R&D to be prepared in this field for years to come.
    Professor Cz. Puzyna authored over 100 scientific publications concerning noise and vibration control in the work environment, including a two-volume monograph published (there were three editions) "Work environment protection against noise". In this monograph (over 700 pages long) the author presented some basic definitions concerning technical acoustics, effects of noise on man, general and specific principles of noise control at source, noise reduction methods in industrial rooms and at workstations as well as economic aspects of noise reduction. For years this monograph was the only guide in Poland to present in such a comprehensive way the problems of noise control in industry. This manual was used as a teaching aid for students of technical universities and specialist post-graduate studies, design and construction office employees, labour inspection, sanitary inspection employees and everybody involved in protecting the work environment against noise.
    Professor Cz. Puzyna was a member of the Acoustics Committee of the Polish Academy of Sciences, Polish Acoustical Society League for Noise Control. He was an expert of the Association of Polish Engineers and Technicians-Mechanics.
    In recognition of his scientific and practical achievements, and for his organizational and teaching efforts in the area of noise and vibration control, Professor Cz. Puzyna was promoted in 1964 (after a positive opinion of the Committee for Researchers' Qualification, Polish Academy of Sciences) to the position of an independent researcher, and in 1973 - to the position of an Associate Professor in the Central Institute for Labour Protection.
    In 1984 he obtained a doctor's degree in technical sciences from the Scientific Council of the Institute of Fundamental Technical Problems, Polish Academy of Sciences, for his doctoral thesis "Effect of the environment's acoustic properties on spatial orientation".
    In 1984, after retiring, Professor Cz. Puzyna co-authored (as a member of a Team at the Committee of Acoustics, Polish Academy of Sciences) of a report entitled "Noise and vibration hazards in Poland", which contributed to preparing the act on protection and shaping of the environment and a regulation concerning protection of the environment against noise and vibrations.
    In 2001 Professor Czesław Puzyna was honoured with the PRO LABORE SECURO statuette founded by the Central Institute for Labour Protection, granted in recognition of public - including scientific - service in aid of the protection of man in the working environment.
    He devoted many years of his life to social work, as a reader for and carer of the blind, cooperating, e.g., with the Róża Czacka School for Blind Children at Laski.
    Professor Cz. Puzyna died on 11 December 2003 in Warsaw. We will remember him as an outstanding specialist in the field of noise and vibration control, educator and teacher of many acousticians working for the protection of the work environment, a man of broad interests, a friend and benefactor of the blind.

    Danuta Augustyńska



    Central Institute for Labour Protection
    Central Institute for Labour ProtectionCzerniakowska 16, 00-701 Warszawa, Poland
    www.ciop.pl
    The Central Institute for Labour Protection was established in 1950. The main aim of the Institute's research and development works is the creation of scientific foundations for system of preventing occupational hazards.
    As the first institute in Poland, has already become a national research institute. This status was conferred by the Ordinance of the Prime Minister of the Republic of Poland of 5 November 2002.
    The Institute's mission is "to conduct scientific research aimed at new technological and organisational solutions which are useful in the design of working conditions that conform to the requirements of occupational safety and ergonomics" and "to determine scientific foundations for the development of socio-economic policies of the Republic of Poland in occupational safety and health".

    Main activities: Central Institute for Labour Protection

  • Research aimed at designing working conditions in accordance with occupational safety and ergonomics standards;
  • Determination of the Maximum Admissible Concentrations (MAC) and Intensities (MAI) and preparation of relevant documentation;
  • Development of standards on occupational safety and ergonomics taking into account the requirements of European and international standards;
  • Testing and certification (as a notified body) of machinery and manufacturing devices as well as personal and collective protective equipment;
  • Education/training of safety engineers, industrial hygienists as well as the representatives of employers and employees in the field of safety and health protection in the working environment;
  • Certification of the competence of personnel and educational bodies active in the field of occupational safety and health;
  • Promotion, implementation and certification of occupational safety and health management systems;
  • Consultations and co-operation with enterprises in identification, reduction or elimination of occupational hazards and related occupational risks;
  • Popularisation of the principles of safe work promotion/information and publishing activity in this area.

  • In the area of noise and vibration hazards, the scope of the Institute's activities covers:
  • the development and improvement of measuring and assessing noise, infra- and ultrasounds, mechanical vibration;
  • the development of ways of eliminating or reducing the harmful effects of those hazards on man during the work process by:
  • reducing emission at the source;
  • developing materials, devices and designs that reduce or eliminate those hazards;
  • developing appropriate hearing protectors and anti-vibration gloves.
  • The current experience and achievements of the Department of Acoustic of CIOP-PIB include:
  • conducting research on the reduction of low frequency noise (including infrasonic noise) of machines, e.g. using reactive - type silencers and active noise control methods;
  • conducting research on the improvement of sound insulation performance of machinery operators' cabins, especially in case of low frequency noise;
  • development the adaptive auditory danger signal generator intended for operation in noise changing in time;
  • conducting work on methods for prediction of noise for the needs of designing work stations equipped with machines and means for noise reduction (enclosures, cabins, screens);
  • testing and conformity assessment of hearing protectors and anti-vibration gloves.
  • Having regards to the noise as one of the main environmental problems in Europe and one of the most widespread workplace hazards, the Department of Acoustic of the Central Institute for Labour Protection - National Research Institute (CIOP-PIB) conducts research on implementation to Polish law and practice of requirements of European Directives relating to the noise (86/188/EEC, 98/37/EC, 2000/14/EC, 2002/49/EC).

    For more information about this site, email: Tadeusz Powałowski
    Joanna Żychowicz-Pokulniewicz
    Last updated: June, 2004