Contents of issue 3, vol. 29 (2004)

  1. Professor Ignacy Malecki - In Memoriam, Archives of Acoustics, 29, 3, 393-394
  2. Professor Leszek Filipczyński - In Memoriam, Archives of Acoustics, 29, 3, 395-396
  3. H.J.M. Steeneken, J. Verhave, Digitally controlled active noise reduction with integrated speech communication, Archives of Acoustics, 29, 3, 397-409
  4. J. Piechowicz, Global index of the acoustic climate, Archives of Acoustics, 29, 3, 411-425
  5. L. Filipczyński, Estimation of heat distribution in the acoustic lens of an ultrasonic microscope with the carrier frequency of 1 GHz, Archives of Acoustics, 29, 3, 427-433
  6. A. Makar, Estimation of the time delay of hydroacoustic signals for passive location of underwater objects, Archives of Acoustics, 29, 3, 435-445
  7. T. Błachowicz, Phenomenological model of changes in the speed of a sound wave in crystals caused by dopants, Archives of Acoustics, 29, 3, 447-459
  8. A. Balcerzak, Ultrasonic investigations of inclusion complexes of cyclodextrins with amphiphilic substances - further results and conclusions, Archives of Acoustics, 29, 3, 461-466
  9. Chronicle, 51st Open Seminar on Acoustics OSA 04, Archives of Acoustics, 29, 3, 467-520
  10. Chronicle, Subjective and Objective Assessment of Sound - SOAS, Archives of Acoustics, 29, 3, 521-532
In Memoriam: Professor Ignacy Malecki
Professor Ignacy Malecki

On June 12, 2004 passed away Professor Ignacy Malecki, an outstanding scientist, educator and precursor of acoustics as an interdisciplinary science. He was the editor-in-chief of the Archives of Acoustics in the years 1982-1987.
Professor Ignacy Malecki was born on November 18, 1912 in Pokiewna, Vilnius district. After he has finished the Joachim Lelewel high school in Vilnius, he began his study at the Electrical Faculty of the technical University in Warsaw. He completed his study in 1935. His thesis, performed under the guidance of Prof. Janusz Groszkowski, concerned rotating electromagnetic fields. After he has completed his study he went as grant holder of the National Foundation of Culture to the Heinrich Hertz Institute in Berlin, where his work under the guidance of Prof. Mayer was focused on the generation of ultrasonic oscillations by a tourmaline crystal. Later he moved to the Philips Laboratory in Eindhoven.
After Professor Malecki came back to Poland in 1936, he organized the laboratory of the Polish Radio. He became appointed the representative of Poland in International Radio Union UIR. His work in the Polish Radio was interrupted in September 1939 by the outbreak of World War II. During the German occupation, he takes part in the didactic work at the Faculty of Architecture of the Technical University in Warsaw. In 1941 he took his doctor's under conspiracy conditions. He completed his thesis entitled Physics of Porous Materials under the guidance of Prof. Stefan Bryła. In 1943 Ignacy Malecki got the venia legendi, i.e. the right to teach at universities which corresponds to the present-day assistant professor. His postdoctoral lecturing qualification book, entitled Propagation of Waves in Closed Rooms, was published in Gdańsk in 1949.
After the war Professor Malecki started his work as lecturer at the Technical University in Gdańsk. In 1946 he was appointed professor and organized the Department of Applied Electrical Engineering and Acoustics. At the same time, he works in cooperation with the navy in Oksywie on acoustic torpedoes. He takes also part in the reconstruction of auditoria (theatres, concert halls). These works resulted in acoustic projects of the Sejm, National Theatre and the State Council. He applied there the technique of modeling closed rooms.
In 1950 Professor Malecki became manager of the Department of Electroacoustics of the Technical University in Warsaw. He managed this department till 1969. In 1952 he was appointed the first dean of the Faculty of Communication and next vice-rector of the Technical University in Warsaw. At the same time, Professor Malecki worked at the newly established Main Institute of Technical Physics, where he organized an acoustic laboratory. In 1952, the latter evolved into the Institute of Researching Oscillations of the Polish Academy of Sciences and was later included in the Institute of Fundamental Technical Research of the Polish Academy of Sciences. Professor Malecki was the first director of this institute and managed it till 1961 and in the years 1974-1982. There he gathered a large team of scientists who had there the chance to develop their research.
Professor Malecki was since 1958 full member of the Polish Academy of Sciences. In the years 1962-1968 he deputized for the Scientific Secretary of the Polish Academy of Sciences. In the years 1961-1971 and 1975-1980, Professor Malecki was member of the Presidium of the Academy. He was also for many years member of the Acoustic Committee and of the Committee of the Study of Progress of Human Knowledge. During the years 1969-1973 he was director of the Department of Scientific Politics of UNESCO in Paris.
The scientific activity of Professor Malecki encompassed the following subject matters: the building and architectural acoustics, audio acoustics, electro acoustics, hydro acoustics, ultrasound acoustics, physical and quantum acoustics as well as acoustic emission. The following achievements of Professor Malecki should be mentioned as the most important ones:

  • The widening of the improved system of the analogy of electrical-mechanical-acoustical systems on isotropic continuous media.
  • The application of the method of joined cross-arms for the determination of porous materials.
  • The completion of the theory of coupled electro-electromagnetic fields by taking into consideration nonlinear effects.
  • The application of the quantum method for the analysis of the distribution of audioacoustic fields by modeling it as a stream of quasi-phonons.
    The scientific output of Professor Malecki includes 230 papers and 11 monographs. To the most important in the international breadth the monograph entitled Physical Foundations of Technical Acoustics published in 1969 by Pergamon Press, Oxford.
    Professor Malecki gathered an important contribution to the education of many generations of Polish acoustics. He promoted 25 doctors.
    The scientific activity of Professor Malecki met a great approval in Poland and worldwide. A voice to it gave the honory doctorates given to him by the Technical University in Budapest, the Mining and Metallurgy Academy in Kraków and the Technical University in Gdańsk. Professor Malecki was also the honorary member of many Polish and international scientific associations. In the 60. years he was the vice-president of the International Council of Scientific Unions (ISCU). In 1978, he was appointed vice-president and later honorary member of the Federation of Acoustical Societies of Europe (FASE). During two tenures, he was president of the International Committee of Acoustics (ICA) and president he chaired twice the world acoustic congresses in Tokyo (1968) and Budapest (1972). For his scientific achievements, many prizes were awarded to him, among other things the National Award of the I and II degree.
    By death of Professor Ignacy Malecki the acousticians suffered a great loss. Professor Malecki was a great authority for everyone.
    Editorial Board of Archives of Acoustics

    In Memoriam: Professor Leszek Filipczyński
    Professor Leszek Filipczyński

    On 30-th of June 2004 Professor Leszek Filipczyński, Editor-in-Chief of Archives of Acoustics in 1997-2003, passed away forever. The Polish science and all of us have suffered a great loss of a scientist who was an outstanding authority on acoustics, particularly on ultrasonic methods in medical diagnosis. He was the man who created the first Polish production of ultrasonographes, a man who organised the work in his Ultrasonic Department in a way that everybody - scientists, engineers and workshop workers could do their best and feel an important part of the staff.
    Leszek Filipczyński was born on the 23-th of December 1923 in Łódź. He spent five years of the German occupation in a mechanical workshop which has been reflected in his future research work by the application of scientific discovery in practice.
    After the war Professor Leszek Filipczyński studied at three universities - in Łódź, in Gdańsk and finally in Warsaw, and took his master's degree in radiotechnical engineering. He organized together with Professor Ignacy Malecki the acoustical laboratory which was incorporated in 1953 into the Institute of Fundamental Technological Research of the Polish Academy of Sciences. Professor Filipczyński has been associated with this institute ever since till his death, being the deputy director for scientific problems (1969-1994), the general director of the institute (1969-1974) as well as the chairman of the Scientific Council (1989-1993).
    His scientific career was brilliant - in 1955 he took his doctor's degree, was appointed associate professor in 1957, full professor in 1962, corresponding member of the Polish Academy of Sciences in 1969, and full member in 1976.
    Professor Filipczyński was the author or editor of 12 monographs and of above 250 original papers and scientific reports published in Polish and foreign periodicals. These works concerned many basic problems in the field of ultrasonics: ultrasonic transducers, material fatigue testing, ultrasonic defectoscopy. He was pioneer in the application of ultrasonic methods in biology and medicine, among other things his works were focused on absolute methods of ultrasonic intensity measurements, ultrasonography of human organs such as brain, abdomen, eye, heart, ultrasonography of pregnant women, a application of ultrasonic Doppler methods in blood flow measurements, thermal effects generated by ultrasonic beams, generation and propagation as well as development of metrology of shock waves for lithotripsy and lately non-linear propagation of ultrasonic waves in soft tissues.
    He promoted 10 doctors who became continuators of his scientific activity in Poland. It should be emphasised that Professor Filipczyński, using his knowledge and authority, pushed forward in the home medical environment a notable group of specialist physician sand co-organised the First International Conference UBIOMED (1970) and the Ultrasonic Section of the Polish Physician Society.
    Professor Filipczyński was awarded not only several state prizes (the last one was the Cavalier's Cross of the Rebirth of Poland). He was recognised by the world-wide scientific authorities as pioneer in this branch, among other things he was granted by the American Institute for Ultrasonic in Medicine in Washington with the Diploma of Pioneer of Ultasonics in Medicine, in the years 1975-1979 he was the vice-chairman of the European Federation for Ultrasonics in Medicine.
    Professor Filipczyński was always active and full of initiatives - he was the chairman of the Polish Committee for Acoustics of the Polish Academy of Sciences (1972-1996), founder and member of the Polish Acoustical Society, and chairman of the Scientific Council of the Institute for Biocybernetics and Biomedical Engineering of the Polish Academy of Sciences (1982-2004). Since 1993, he was also a member of the New York Academy of Sciences.
    Professor Filipczyński was considered as the father of the Polish School of Ultrasonic Medical Diagnosis. He was a man of high erudition and great modesty, a theorist and experimenter, and just a boss respected by everyone who knew him and respecting others. He was a man of personal charm - connoisseur of arts and playing piano...
    We shall always remember Professor Leszek Filipczyński not only as a great scientist, but also as a modest and honest man who was, always ready to help others and sensitive to their needs.

    Editorial Board of Archives of Acoustics

    H.J.M. Steeneken, J. Verhave, Digitally controlled active noise reduction with integrated speech communication
    TNO Human Factors, Soesterberg, The Netherlands
    (received 2 April 2002; accepted 30 January 2004)
    Active noise reduction is a successful addition to passive ear-defenders for improvement of the sound attenuation at low frequencies. Design and assessment methods are discussed, focused on subjective and objective attenuation measurements, stability, and high noise level applications. Active noise reduction systems are suitable for integration with an intercom. For this purpose the intelligibility in combination with environmental noise is evaluated. Development of a system includes the acoustical design, the (digital) feedback control, and the speech input facility. In order to achieve optimal performance a specific audio design is required. An example of such a development is discussed.
    Key words: hearing protection, active noise reduction, speech communication, digital controlled feed back.

    J. Piechowicz, Global index of the acoustic climate
    AGH-University of Science and Technology
    Department of Mechanics and Vibroacoustics
    Al. Mickiewicza 30, 30-059 Kraków, Poland
    (received 29 September 2003; accepted 21 May 2004)
    The paper deals with the essential problem of noise protection in the work environment. It develops the criteria of the assessment of the acoustic climate quality in industrial rooms, often already at the stage of their designing. The requirements of the acoustic safety of workplaces force to improve constantly the processing of the results of model and experimental investigations and to search for synthetic ways of presentation of the acoustic quality of industrial rooms in order to be able to estimate the risk of occupational diseases for the employees exposed to noise. Until quite lately, the index method of assessment of the acoustic climate of industrial rooms was based - on three partial indices: the technological one, the sound power and the acoustic properties of the room. The paper presented here expands the method by introducing additional indices: the index of impulse and impact noise, the index of fittings density of the room, the index of the noise spectrum distribution and the index of low-frequency noise. Such broad formulation of acoustic phenomena in industrial rooms by the single-numbered Global Index is an innovatory enterprise. The indices were experimentally estimated in the Forge.

    L. Filipczyński, Estimation of heat distribution in the acoustic lens of an ultrasonic microscope with the carrier frequency of 1 GHz
    Institute of Fundamental Technological Research
    Polish Academy of Sciences
    Świętokrzyska 21, 00-049 Warszawa, Poland
    (received 9 January 2004; accepted 26 March 2004)
    The propagation of heat was analyzed in the lens of an acoustic microscope used for testing of living cells at the frequency of 1~GHz. Information concerning the propagation of heat is necessary for determination of thermal boundary conditions which influence the temperature increase in the tested samples representing acoustical properties of water. The time of temperature propagation from water, heated due to high absorption, to the sapphire body of the lens was estimated to be 0.77 ms. To carry out these calculations the derivations of Carslow and Jaeger [2] and of Tautz [6] were adjusted. On the other hand the propagation time of the acoustic wave in the sapphire body equalled 0.0093 μs only. The time of image formation in the microscope is rather long being equal from one to several seconds due to mechanical inertia of the support vibrating together with the tested sample. The heat capacities of the water volume and the sapphire body were found to be comparable. However, if the heat capacity of the water volume would be many time smaller then the time of the finally attained temperature would be elongated. This effect can be neglected since the time of image formation is 3 orders of magnitude longer than the time of penetration of the sapphire body by the heat supplied by water. As the result a temperature equilibrium will be obtained with the average boundary temperature of water. In such a case no heat flux will penetrate the boundary water - sapphire and the condition of the thermal insulation at the boundary will be fulfilled. This thermal boundary condition makes it possible to determine the real temperature increase in biological specimens.

    A. Makar, Estimation of the time delay of hydroacoustic signals for passive location of underwater objects
    Naval University, Institute of Navigation and Hydrography
    Śmidowicza 69, 81-103 Gdynia, Poland
    (received 8 May 2003; accepted 3 December 2003)
    In this paper a method of time delay estimation of acoustic signals radiated in water has been shown. The source of these signals is a moving ship. The gradient adaptive method of minimizing the error has been used. An algorithm of estimation using this method and the results of estimation the real signals radiated by a moving ship have been presented.
    Key words: estimation, time delay, underwater navigation.

    T. Błachowicz, Phenomenological model of changes in the speed of a sound wave in crystals caused by dopants
    Silesian University of Technology, Institute of Physics
    Krzywoustego 2, 44-100 Gliwice, Poland
    (received 21 December 2001; accepted 11 February 2004)
    The paper examines theoretically changes in the speed of an acoustic wave in crystals caused by metallic dopants. It is well known that an acoustic wave has a wavelength larger than the typical dimension of the elementary crystallographic cell, so it is sensitive only to large-scale features. The model bases on the assumption that a crystal with uniform distributed dopants can be transformed into a multiplayer virtual structure form which some conclusions can be drawn. The approach presented is valid for longitudinal acoustic waves, where the atomic displacement can be considered as a continuum field. It provides positive or negative changes in the acoustic wave speeds for different dopants in a hypothetical lithium niobate crystal.
    Key words: elastic constants, elastic waves in layered media, superlattices, lithium niobate, dopants in lithium niobate, Rytov's model, pulse-echo method, ultrasonics.

    A. Balcerzak, Ultrasonic investigations of inclusion complexes of cyclodextrins with amphiphilic substances - further results and conclusions
    Institute of Fundamental Technological Research
    Polish Academy of Sciences
    Świętokrzyska 21, 00-049 Warszawa, Poland
    (received 8 May 2003; accepted 21 May 2004)
    On the basis of formerly made and published [1-3] ultrasonic measurements of aqueous solutions of α- or β-cyclodextrin with amphiphilic substances, calculations have been done and new conclusions drawn. These calculations and conclusions explain some experimental results concerning the stability of inclusion complexes of cyclodextrin with amphiphilic substances and the mechanism of the formation of such complexes.
    Key words: ultrasonic relaxation, cyclodextrins, amphiphilic substances, inclusion complexes, complexation mechanism.

    Chronicle: 51st Open Seminar on Acoustics OSA 04
    Gdańsk - Sobieszewo, 6th-10th September, 2004
    B.B.J. Linde Chairman of the Organizing Committee
    University of Gdańsk
    Institute of Experimental Physics
    Wita Stwosza 57, 80-952 Gdańsk, Poland
    E. Kozaczka Chairman of the Scientific Committee
    Gdańsk University of Technology
    Narutowicza 11/12, 80-952 Gdańsk, Poland
    The Scientific and Organizing Committees of the annual Polish conference on acoustics, OSA 04, would like to present you the abstracts of papers, which have been submitted for this scientific event.
    The Open Seminars on Acoustics (OSA) have a long-lasting tradition. They are organized usually in September in various places of Poland. Seven local divisions of the Polish Acoustical Society taking turns organize consecutive events. The meeting is the most significant forum for the presentation of recent, usually Polish, experiences and achievements from both experimental and theoretical research in the field of acoustics.
    The Seminar, after those in 1967, 1972, 1987, 1983, 1990 and 1997 will be the 7th OSA organized by the Gdańsk Division of the Polish Acoustical Society.
    The first time, during the Open Seminar on Acoustics, there will be organized structured sessions with cooperation of Polish and German acousticians.
    The papers concerne different areas of acoustics presented at the Seminar. They are divided into invited and contributed ones, which you can find beneath.
    Bogumił B.J. Linde - chairman
    Anna Sikorska - secretary

    Chronicle: Subjective and Objective Assessment of Sound - SOAS
    Poznań, Poland, September 1-3, 2004

    The conference will be devoted to different aspects of perception of sounds. The aim of the conference is to bring together experts dealing with sound perception in laboratories and in environment and exchange of experiences in the field. The subject of the conference "Subjective and objective evaluation of sound" is directly related to our everyday experience in which we evaluate sound in different situations. The conference is expected to exchange new ideas of evaluation of sounds and it will comprise a wide spectrum of problems related to audio acoustics including psychoacoustics, speech, environmental acoustics and speech intelligibility improvement.
    Invited key-note speakers:

  • Prof. B. Berglund, Gösta Ekman Laboratory, Karolinska Institute and Stockholm University, Sweden;
  • Prof. B. Griefahn, Institute for Occupational Physiology at Dortmund University, Germany;
  • Prof. S. Kuwano, Graduate school of Human Sciences, Osaka University, Japan;
  • Prof. Y. Suzuki, Research Institute of Electrical Communication, Tohoku University, Sendai, Japan;
  • Prof. H. Tachibana, Institute of Industrial Science, University of Tokyo, Japan;
  • Prof. N.F. Viemeister, Department of Psychology, University of Minnesota, USA.
  • Since 1999 the Institute of Acoustics is located in newly constructed, fully equipped premises. Three lecture halls for over 100 people are equipped with all multimedia and all other necessary infrastructure. In 1990 our Institute organized an international symposium on Subjective and Objective Evaluating of Sound, with 60 participants from all over the world.
    In 1998 our Institute was asked to organize the Thirteenth Annual Meeting of the International Society for Psychophysics, "Fechner Day 97". It was organized in Poznań, with 80 participants from all over the world.

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