Contents of issue 3, vol. 30 (2005)

  1. D. Kutzner, J. Lemańska, A.P. Sęk, Detection of asynchronicity in the amplitude modulation domain, Archives of Acoustics, 30, 3, 291-307
  2. K. Pre¶, L. Po¶piech, M. Mazur, M. Kubacka, B. Rostkowska-Nadolska, W. Michalski, Effect of surgical drilling on cochlear potentials, Archives of Acoustics, 30, 3, 309-321
  3. M. Ohta, H. Ogawa, A note on identifying a transmission factor in room acoustics, Archives of Acoustics, 30, 3, 323-331
  4. A. Perelomova, Parameter of nonlinearity B/A of three-component systems with separate volumes of liquid, its vapor and a neutral gas, Archives of Acoustics, 30, 3, 333-343
  5. M. Maliński, Determination of air-tightness of the packagings of electronic devices by the thermoacoustic method, Archives of Acoustics, 30, 3, 345-355
  6. Y.B. Saddeek, M.A. Azooz, S.H. Kenawy, Effect of fly ash on the Li2O-B2O3 system: structural study by pulse echo technique, Archives of Acoustics, 30, 3, 357-371
  7. A. Balcerzak, Ultrasonic measurements in the 1-(trans-4-hexylcyclohexyl)-4-isothiocyanatobenzene near the nematic-isotropic transition, Archives of Acoustics, 30, 3, 373-378
  8. Chronicle, The 52nd Open Seminar on Acoustics OSA 05 joint with the Polish-Scandinavian Structured Conference on Acoustics, Archives of Acoustics, 30, 3, 379-425
  9. Chronicle, Second Conference of Speech Analysis, Synthesis and Recognition Applications of Phonetic Research, Archives of Acoustics, 30, 3, 427-446
D. Kutzner, J. Lemańska, A.P. Sęk, Detection of asynchronicity in the amplitude modulation domain
Adam Mickiewicz University, Institute of Acoustics
Umultowska 85, 60-614 Poznań, Poland
e-mail: oleksek@amu.edu.pl
(received February 17, 2004; new version November 15, 2004; accepted June 15, 2005)
A just noticeable time delay (JNTD) between the onset of a single sinusoidal amplitude modulation (AM) and a complex modulation applied to the same carrier was measured in this study. The carrier was a 4-kHz tone and the modulator was a five-component multitone complex.
In the first experiment, four of five components had constant frequencies, i.e. 160, 170, 180, 190 Hz and they were turned on synchronously (synchronous components) in the middle of the carrier duration. The frequency of the fifth component (asynchronous one) varied from 10 to 150 Hz and it was turned on earlier than the synchronous ones.
In the second experiment, the asynchronous component was situated in the centre of the synchronous components' spectrum; its frequency was constant and equal to 100 Hz. The spectral separation between the asynchronous component and the synchronous ones of the modulator varied.
The results, i.e. the just noticeable time delay between the onset of a single sinusoidal amplitude modulation and a complex modulation (or asynchrony threshold), are analogous to those obtained in the audible frequency domain. They can be interpreted on the basis of the auditory system model containing a bank of modulation filters.
It seems that two separate mechanisms are responsible for the JNTD between the onset of the single component modulation and the complex modulation. The first one results from an interaction between all the components of a modulator passing a single modulation filter tuned to the frequency of the asynchronous component. This sort of interaction (or masking) was most effective when the spectral separation between the asynchronous component and the synchronous ones was the smallest one. With an increase in this separation, a significant decrease in the asynchrony thresholds was observed. The second mechanism determining the obtained asynchrony thresholds is based on the uncertainty principle: modulation filters with good frequency selectivity, i.e. filters tuned to low modulation rates, are characterised by a poor time resolution. Thus, in the case of the lowest frequencies of the asynchronous component the subjects' performance would be relatively poor even when there was a significant spectral interval between this component and the synchronous ones.
As in the audible frequency domain, the pattern of the asynchronicity thresholds was related to the modulation filter bandwidth. The obtained results suggest the bandwidth of the modulation filters whose Q factor should be close to 1 or less.
Key words: amplitude modulation, modulation filterbank, asynchronicity.

K. Pre¶*, L. Po¶piech*, M. Mazur*, M. Kubacka*, B. Rostkowska-Nadolska*, W. Michalski**, Effect of surgical drilling on cochlear potentials
* Medical University of Wrocław, Department of Otolaryngology
Chałubińskiego 2, 50-368 Wrocław, Poland
email: kpres@dilnet.wroc.pl
** Wrocław University of Technology
Institute of Telecommunications and Acoustics
(received February 25, 2002; revised version May 4, 2005; accepted May 18, 2005)
The aim of the experiment was to examine the effect of noise and mechanical vibrations generated during the drilling of the bones surrounding the cochlea on the cochlear microphonics (CM). The experiment was carried out on a group of 40 guinea pigs divided equally into a group to be studied and a control group. In the studied group, CM values were measured three times: immediately after opening the bulla, after 30 minutes of nonstop drilling and two hours later, whereas in the control group they were measured twice: immediately after opening the bulla and 2.5 hours later. In this way the post-drilling shock and the long-term injuries to the cochlea could be studied. A statistical analysis of the obtained results shows that surgical drilling may cause an average decrease of 50-60% in CM values in comparison with the control group.
Key words: cochlear microphonics, guinea pigs, surgical drilling.


M. Ohta*, H. Ogawa**, A note on identifying a transmission factor in room acoustics
* Professor Emeritus of Hiroshima University
Matoba 1-7-10-1106, Minami-ku, Hiroshima City, 732-0824 Japan
e-mail: ohta-3322@mdd.spacetown.ne.jp
** Prefectural University of Hiroshima, Faculty of Management and Information Systems
Ujina-Higashi 1-1-71, Minami-ku, Hiroshima City, 734-8558 Japan
e-mail: hogawa@pu-hiroshima.ac.jp
(received May 8, 2002; accepted May 18, 2005)
In this study, as a concrete example of the non-linear inverse problem in indoor sound fields, a complex sound fluctuation leaked through an aperture gap in the partition door of a coupled room under the actual sound environment has been discussed. A probability evaluation theory introducing a simple stochastic inverse system model has been proposed first especially from an object-oriented viewpoint. More concretely, in order to evaluate the output response probability distribution of the acoustic intensity in the sound receiving room, after introducing time-averaged stochastic variables, we have identified functionally the leakage property as some variability of a transmission factor. Then, we have predicted the output response probability distribution for a new arbitrary stochastic input once after establishing a prediction theory for the probability distribution of a multiplicative model. Finally, an effectiveness of the proposed theory has been experimentally confirmed too by an application to actual indoor sound field data.
Key words: response probability prediction, inverse system model, room acoustics.


A. Perelomova, Parameter of nonlinearity B/A of three-component systems with separate volumes of liquid, its vapor and a neutral gas
Gdańsk University of Technology
Narutowicza 11/12, 80-952 Gdańsk, Poland
e-mail: anpe@mifgate.pg.gda.pl
(received September 10, 2004; accepted January 21, 2005)
An expression of the excess entropy of a three-component mixture with separate volumes of liquid, vapor and neutral gas in terms of its excess pressure and density is obtained with accuracy up to quadratic nonlinear terms. The formulae of a small-signal sound speed and parameter of nonlinearity B/A defined by this expression depend on equilibrium mass concentrations of vapor and neutral gas and the initial pressure of the mixture. The only limitation is that the vapor and the inertial gas are ideal gases. Calculations of the sound velocity and the parameter of nonlinearity are presented for a mixture consisting of water and water vapor being in phase equilibrium and air.
Key words: parameter of nonlinearity B/A, coefficient of nonlinearity, three-component mixture with separate volumes of gas and vapor.


M. Maliński, Determination of air-tightness of the packagings of electronic devices by the thermoacoustic method
Technical University of Koszalin, Department of Electronics
¦niadeckich 2, 75-328 Koszalin, Poland
email: mmalin@tu.koszalin.pl
(received October 1, 2004; accepted April 5, 2005)
The method of determination of air-tightness of packagings based on the measurement of the thermoacoustic signals generated by transistor chips is described in this paper. This method makes possible the estimation of the radius of the hole in the packaging and, as a result, its air-tightness. In this paper the fitting of the theoretical model to experimental results is presented and discussed. Because of its simplicity and nondestructive character, the presented method can be applied in the quality control departments of the electronic industry.
Key words: air-tightness, thermoacoustics.


Y.B. Saddeek*, M.A. Azooz**, S.H. Kenawy***, Effect of fly ash on the Li2O-B2O3 system: structural study by pulse echo technique
* Al Azhar University, Faculty of Science, Physics Department, Assiut, Egypt
e-mail: ysaddeek2001@yahoo.com
** National Research Center, Glass Research Department, Dokki, Cairo, Egypt
*** National Research Center, Refractories and Ceramics Department, Dokki, Cairo, Egypt
(received November 15, 2004; accepted March 15, 2005)
Fly ash obtained from Toshkey project, which in turn was delivered from France, is a valuable source of many oxides such as SiO2, Al2O3, Fe2O3, CaO and MgO. These oxides can provide a useful preliminary source for the preparation of glasses. Glass of the system 10 Li2O-90 B2O3 (wt %) has been prepared. The progressive addition of fly ash to this type of glass was made to study its effect on the chemical and physical properties of the parent glass. Room temperature ultrasonic measurements were performed by pulse-echo method. The densities of the prepared samples were measured to justify the packing arrangements of the constituent oxide. The variations in densities and ultrasonic velocities of the prepared samples containing progressive fly ash contents were correlated and discussed. The values of elastic moduli (including Young's modulus, bulk modulus, shear modulus and Poisson's ratio) were compared with those theoretically calculated in terms of Makishima-Mackenzie model and a model proposed by Rocherulle et al.
Key words: Lithium borate glasses, fly ash, elastic properties.


A. Balcerzak, Ultrasonic measurements in the 1-(trans-4-hexylcyclohexyl)-4-isothiocyanatobenzene near the nematic-isotropic transition
Institute of Fundamental Technological Research
Polish Academy of Sciences
¦więtokrzyska 21, 00-049 Warszawa, Poland
email: abalcerz@ippt.gov.pl
(received January 11, 2005; accepted April 20, 2005)
The absorption and velocity of ultrasonic longitudinal waves in the nematic liquid crystal 1-(trans-4-hexylcyclohexyl)-4-isothiocyanatobenzene (6CHBT) have been measured as a function of temperature between 24oC and 55oC at 5.2 MHz. The temperature dependence of ultrasonic absorption has a sharp maximum, whereas that dependence of velocity shows a local minimum in the region of the nematic-isotropic (N-I) phase transition. Additional temperature measurements of density have been done to calculate the thermal coefficient of expansion and the temperature coefficient of adiabatic compressibility. Both these parameters exhibit critical behaviour at the transition which has been analysed. The values of the exponent determining the growth of the order fluctuations have been calculated and compared with references.
Key words: ultrasonic measurements, ultrasonic velocity and absorption, nematic-isotropic transition, adiabatic compressibility, thermal expansion.


Chronicle, The 52nd Open Seminar on Acoustics OSA 05 joint with the Polish-Scandinavian Structured Conference on Acoustics
W±growiec, 11-17 September, 2005
The conference will be devoted to different aspects of theoretical and experimental research in the field of acoustics. Seven invited papers will be delivered by the following speakers:
  1. Dr hab. inż. Adam Brański, Rzeszów University of Technology, Rzeszów;
  2. Dr hab. Natalia Gorska, Institute of Oceanology, Polish Academy of Sciences, Sopot;
  3. Dr hab. inż. Andrzej Kulowski, Gdańsk University of Technology, Gdańsk;
  4. Prof. dr hab. Piotr Kwiek, University of Gdańsk, Gdańsk;
  5. Prof. dr hab. Rufin Makarewicz, Adam Mickiewicz University, Poznań;
  6. Dr hab. Andrzej Mi¶kiewicz, Chopin Academy of Music, Warszawa;
  7. Prof. dr hab. Andrzej Rakowski, Chopin Academy of Music, Warszawa.
There are 94 contributing papers which will be presented during the meeting.
For the second time, the structured sessions with cooperation of the Scandinavian and Polish acousticians will be held during the Open Seminar on Acoustics. The aim of the structured sessions is to present recent scientific achievements and current research programs in Poland and the Scandinavian countries. The following sessions are planned:
  1. Environmental acoustics.
  2. Multidisciplinary approach to audition.
  3. Hydroacoustics.
All in all, 19 papers will be presented during the Polish-Scandinavian Structured Conference on Acoustic. Anna Preis - chairman     Arkadiusz Józefczak - secretary


Chronicle, Second Conference of Speech Analysis, Synthesis and Recognition Applications of Phonetic Research
Kraków, Poland 19--23 September, 2005 Organized by Polish Phonetic Association
AGH University of Science and Technology
Supported by International Commission for Acoustics
Acoustics Committee of the Polish Academy of Science
Institute of Linguistics, Adam Mickiewicz University
The conference, organized to celebrate the 25th anniversary of the foundation of Polish Phonetic Association (PTFon), is of interest to several scientific communities, including Human Language and Speech Technology, Linguistics, Phonetics, Phoniatrics and Musicology. Its scientific program covers a wide variety of topics related to the contemporary applications of phonetics. which aims at creating a forum for cross-discipline initiatives and innovative applications that will present recent scientific developments, demonstrations of prototypes resulting from this research, as well as the most innovative products now appearing on the market. While the meeting will focus mainly on speech analysis, processing, synthesis and recognition, contributions from numerous other areas of speech and language studies have also been accepted. In order to support the multi-disciplinary goals of the conference, the international Scientific Committee is made up of a wide spectrum of scientific communities. The Organizers are hoping that the Conference will stimulate exchange of scientific thought coming from a variety of research perspectives and approaches.
Main scientific areas:
  • applications of phonetics in speech synthesis and recognition;
  • prosody in speech synthesis, recognition and analysis;
  • pitch perception in music and speech
  • corpus-based methods in speech synthesis and recognition;
  • natural and synthetic expressive speech;
  • voice quality in natural and synthetic speech;
  • evaluation of speech synthesis and recognition systems;
  • applications of phonetics in audiology and phoniatrics;
  • medical diagnostics based on speech signal analysis
  • pragmaphonetics in discourse and dialogue analysis.
  • Grażyna Demenko
    President of the Polish Phonetic Association
    e-mail: lin@amu.edu.pl